Written by: Ted Fauceglia

Tricos produce a number of the largest spinnerfalls of the season.
Photographs by Ted Fauceglia

[Editor’s note: Ted Fauceglia is the country’s foremost photographer of aquatic insects, and he writes the “Natural Reflections” column in each issue of American Angler. Ted is also an FFI Certified Casting Instructor, the author of Mayflies (2004), and he has provided the bug and fly-pattern photography for dozens of books. He has graciously allowed us to republish some of his columns, and we will be sharing Ted’s incredible images and fly-fishing knowledge every month.]

If the fly fisher’s lexicon had been ever accessible in written kind, the unknowing reader can be amused, if not astounded, by the twisted definitions and associations fly fishers have ascribed to a sure group of phrases. Blue dun, blue quill, blue-winged olive, silver physician blue, super-fine dubbing, stiff butt, supple tippet, inexperienced, brown, and yellow drakes, march brown, white-gloved howdy, woolly buggers, cowdung, cream variant, cocky variant, stimulator, freestone and limestone are however just a few of the phrases that we now have redefined for our functions. To the common reader, I’m fairly certain the phrases stiff butt wouldn’t stir visions of the fats a part of a tapered chief nor would a stimulator rouse ideas of a closely hackled dry fly.

On the flip facet, calcium carbonate doesn’t instantly come to thoughts after we fly fishers hear the phrase limestone. True to kind, we consider the phrase in a wholly completely different context, which A. Joseph Armstrong completely describes in Information to Pennsylvania Limestone Streams, “Point out [limestone] to a trout fisherman and also you’ll get a flood of associations—exquisitely clear footage in sharp focus flashing like a slide present in quick ahead. Watercress. Dimples. Blizzard like hatches. Seductive currents. Fats trout!” An esoteric imaginative and prescient, to make sure.

The distinctive profile of the Trico spinner has spawned numerous imitations.

Having made many journeys to most of Pennsylvania’s limestone waters, I share Mr. Armstrong’s imagery of limestone waters. Limestone streams characterize the fly fisher’s final problem. Fertile water, with fixed flows, that produce choosy, wholesome, wild trout rising within the cross currents of uncovered vegetation, feeding on a plethora of bugs.

Like many of the Pennsylvania’s fertile freestone streams, not all of her limestone waters produce each main hatch. However olives, blue quills, Quill Gordons, Hendricksons, inexperienced, brown and yellow drakes, sulfurs, many of the members of the sunshine Cahill household, Tricos, the white fly and a bunch of terrestrials together with the ever-present widespread black ant do happen on the vast majority of PA’s limestone waters. As well as, substantial hatches of caddis and stoneflies happen yearly. To efficiently meet these hatches, mild rods, positive tippets, exact spot casts mixed with the precise patterns are the order of the day.

Many Pennsylvania limestone anglers, together with yours really, really feel that the sulfur hatches current the perfect dry-fly motion of the season. Beginning across the final of Might, the primary of the sulfur hatches emerge. Later in Might, a number of sulfur species hatch sequentially that produce wonderful dry-fly motion from the tip of Might to the start of July.

Sadly, wild trout and prolific mayfly hatches inherently carry a draw back—crowded circumstances. When the sulfurs are on, crowded circumstances are a given; it’s axiomatic to say you’ll have a variety of firm. It’s one thing that needs to be handled, if you wish to fish the sulfurs. However regardless of the throngs of mad casters, I’m inexorably drawn to the sulfur hatches. The motion is simply that good.

Paradoxically, there’s a optimistic facet to the tip of the sulfur hatches–when the sulfurs hatches subside, so do the crowds. By the primary of July, the throngs of mad casters are lowered to a fervent few. Virtually in a single day, the feverish tempo slows remarkably. The early morning mad sprint to the stream is just not vital; the parking areas are empty; and your favourite sections of the stream can be found. The massive pods of rising trout have dissipated. However the trout are nonetheless there, and extra hatches are coming.

          Trico Spinner (feminine)
          Hook: 1X-fine straight-eye hook (right here, a Tiemco 101), sizes 20-26.
          Thread: Olive, 12/0.
          Tail: Mild dun Microfibbets.
          Stomach: White thread, 8/0.
          Wing: Hello Vis Antron, white.
          Thorax: Black Superfine dubbing.
          Head: Black tying thread.


The final sulfur dun emerges someday within the middle-to-late June. By this time, most of all the foremost mid-morning early season hatches have accomplished their life cycle. With rising air temperatures and lowered water ranges, Mom Nature has made some essential changes: hatch-times have been revised, and the molting course of has been accelerated. Grownup mayflies should not have mouthparts; and consequently, they don’t have any technique of absorbing water. If uncovered to the solar for any time period they die–instantly. To the mayfly, publicity to the new solar is equal to confinement in a gasoline chamber. They don’t seem to be geared up to take care of the solar’s warmth. A lot worse than sunburn, they rapidly dehydrate. To manage, late summer season mayfly species have merely modified their hatch instances. Some species hatch earlier than the solar rises, whereas different species wait till the sunsets. Tricorythodes (Tricos) and the White Fly (Ephoron species) species replicate this adaptation. Tricos hatches happen earlier than the solar comes up and the White Fly hatches after the solar goes down.

Relying on the circumstances, Trico spinners might be on water from dawn to as late as 10:00 A.M. Trico males emerge in the course of the evening. After hatching, they journey to the close by foliage the place they molt into spinners. Females hatch shortly earlier than dawn. After a brief resting interval, the females fly to a selected part of the stream (normally on the head of riffle or pool) the place the males be a part of them, and the mating course of happen. As a result of hatching exercise takes place in the course of the evening, dun patterns are the least efficient sample. Some hatching exercise lingers into the day mild hours; however by and huge, the spinner patterns work greatest. Trout lie on the tail finish of swimming pools and gulp the dying spinners as they drift into their feeding lanes. Dimension and sample are essential. Trico hatches start in early July and stretch effectively into late October. Evidently, the longer the hatch, the extra selective the trout develop into.

Tricos have disproportionately massive wings relative to the scale of the our bodies. The triple-wing spinner, created by Michigan angler Dr. Dave Ellis, completely matches a spent Trico’s profile. I depend on two spinner patterns one which represents the male, the opposite the feminine; I tie them in sizes 20 via 26. The male sample requires an all black physique, and the feminine sample requires a really mild inexperienced grey stomach.

White flies molt in a short time earlier than falling to the floor as spinners.

The White Fly

Lengthy after the Trico hatch has ended and the solar has set, the white fly nymphs crawl out of their niches and put together to hatch. Simply earlier than darkish, the closely gilled white fly nymphs wiggle to the floor the place they instantly hatch into duns. After finishing the molting course of, the mating begins. From this level, it’s enterprise as ordinary: the males fall to the water and expire, whereas the females descend to the water and deposit their eggs. When egg laying is accomplished, the females drop to the water. Emergence, mating and egg laying occur in a two-to-three hour interval.

Just like the Trico hatches many of the trout’s feeding exercise facilities across the spinner fall. A nymph sample is beneficial previous to emergence and a dun sample works throughout emergence, however the spinner represents the principle course. A literal feeding frenzy occurs when the spinners hit the water. Throughout the peak of the spinner fall, 1000’s of spinners blanket the water, and the trout noisily eat them. Usually, the trout line up in the perfect feeding lanes the place the spinners drift on to them. And whereas the trout will seemingly take any pure they see, they won’t take simply any sample introduced. Even when it’s pitch darkish, they are often unbelievably selective. Below these circumstances, the perfect technique is to zero in on a single rising trout, time its rise intervals, and solid while you anticipate the following take. If an increase happens in shut proximity to your fly, gently raise your rod. If not, maintain making an attempt. Futilely casting to a whole bunch of rising trout has been confirmed to trigger a illness just like whirling illness. Consider one riser at time.

          White Fly Spinner
          Hook: Commonplace dry-fly hook (right here, a Tiemco 100), sizes 12-14.
          Thread: White, 8/0 or 70-denier.
          Tail: Dun Microfibbets.
          Stomach: Combination of white and light-weight grey Antron dubbing.
          Wingcase: Mild dun Poly Yarn.
          Thorax: Combination of white and light-weight grey Antron dubbing.
          Head: White tying thread.

Easy, sturdy patterns work greatest in the course of the spinner fall. Tying flies on in pitch-dark circumstances, with trout rising throughout me, is just not one in all my favourite previous instances. A single fly ought to endure the abuse of not less than a dozen takes. The sample proven under is my favourite White Fly spinner sample. I additionally carry a light-dun parachute sample tied with a light-dun poly yarn submit. To enhance accuracy, I exploit a frontrunner shortened to seven and a half toes with about two toes of 5X tippet.

Until you reside close to the stream and head residence after the Trico hatch has ended and return within the night to fish the white fly, you’ll have a protracted wait between the hatches. Fortuitously, for these of us that journey lengthy distances to fish limestone water, Mom Nature has once more considered us. In late summer season, the terrestrial season is in full swing. And whereas pods of trout aren’t actively up and rising, a fortuitous provide of terrestrials discover their manner into the water. A well-placed terrestrial, like a black ant, will normally coax a resting trout out of its afternoon lethargy.

For the touring angler, fishing the Trico and white fly hatches is well an all-day affair–It’s essential to get to the stream early and keep late. It’s a good suggestion to convey a lunch, a lot of ingesting water and a tube of solar block—that late-summer solar is a killer.

          Black Ant
          Hook: Parachute hook (right here, a Tiemco 102 Y), sizes 16-20.
          Thread: Black, 8/0 or 70-denier.
          Stomach: Black fur dubbing.
          Wing: Mild dun Z-Lon.
          Legs: Grizzly hackle.
          Thorax: Black fur dubbing.
          Head: Black tying thread.


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